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Appendices To Homosexuality And Hope (CMA)

Igor Grabar. Winter Morning.
(Igor Grabar. Winter Morning. Source)

Note: This text doesn't stand alone. It's the appendices to Homosexuality And Hope, removed to speed up downloading times.

Also, in this text, we use the neologism "heman", in order to avoid ambiguity.

Table of contents

Introduction to the Appendices
Courage and Encourage
Authors, contibutors and editors

Introduction to the Appendices

The research referenced in this report is drawn from a wide variety of sources. In most cases, numerous other sources could have been cited. For those desiring to make an in-depth study of the issues raised, a comprehensive bibliography can be obtained (heartbeatnews1 "at sign" cox.net) along with reviews of the relevant literature.

It should also be pointed out that many of the authors cited do not accept the Church's teaching on the intrinsically disordered nature of homosexual acts. No effort has been made to distinguish between those who do and those who don't, since those who favor prevention and treatment and those who support gay-affirming therapy present essentially consistent statistical evidence and case material, differing on the interpretation and relevance of the evidence. The endnotes contain numerous direct quotations from the material cited.

Courage and Encourage

St. John the Baptist Church and Friary
210 West 31st Street
New York, NY 10001
212-268-7150 (fax)
web site: Courage
email: NYCourage (at sign) aol.com

Authors, contibutors and editors

Eugene Diamond, M.D.
Professor of Pediatrics
Loyola Stritch School of Medicine
Chicago, IL

Richard Delaney, M.D.
Family Medicine
Washington, DC

Sheila Diamond, RN, MSN
Nursing Consultant
John Paul II Institute
Rome, Italy

Richard Fitzgibbons, M.D.
Comprehensive Counseling Service
W. Conshohocken, PA

Rev. James Gould
St. Raymond Parish
Arlington, VA

Rev. John Harvey
Director, Courage Ministry
New York, NY

Ned Masbaum, M.D.
Forensic Psychiatrist
Indianapolis, IN

Kevin Murrell, M.D.
Dept. of Psychiatry
Univ. of Georgia Medical School
Augusta, GA

Peter Rudegeair, Ph.D.
Clinical Psychologist
W. Conshohocken, PA

Edward Sheridan, M.D.
Dept. of Psychiatry
Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine
Washington, DC


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[1] Chapman and Brannock (1987) found than 63% of the lesbians in their survey stated that they had chosen to be lesbians, 28% felt they had no choice, and 11% did not know why they were lesbians.

[2] Schreier writes in support of a therapist (Wolpe 1969) who refused to patient's request for therapy directed toward change of sexual orientation from homosexuality to heterosexual: "Perhaps instead of sexual reorientation, individuals could seek religious reorientation to any number of major U.S. religions that are affirming of people with same-sex orientations.... Not all religions are judgmental and condemning. Advocating for sexual reorientation while being critical of religious reorientation again demonstrates nothing more than bias." (p.308)

[3] Burr: Cover story of The Weekly Standard, "Suppose there is a Gay Gene...What then?"

[4] Hamer claimed to have found a marker for homosexuality on the x gene.

[5] LeVay claimed to have found that a certain part of the brains of homosexual men who died of AIDS differed from that of heterosexual men and women.

[6] Byne: "Critical review shows the evidence favoring a biologic theory to be lacking. In an alternative model, temperamental and personality traits interact with familial and social milieu as the individual's sexuality emerges." (p.228) "Research into the inheritability of personality variants suggests that some personality dimensions my be heritable, including novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Applying these dimensions to the above scenario, one might predict that a boy who was high in novelty seeking, but low in harm avoidance and reward dependence, would be likely to disregard his mother's discouragement of baseball. On the other hand, a boy who was low in novelty seeking, but high in harm avoidance and reward dependence, would be more likely to need the rewards of maternal approval, would be less likely to seek and encounter male role models outside the family, and would be more likely to avoid baseball for fear of being hurt. In the absence of encouragement from an accepting father or alternative male role model, such a boy would be likely to feel different from his male peers and as a consequence be subject to non-erotic experiences in childhood that may contribute to the subsequent emergence of homoerotic preferences. Such experiences could include those described by Friedman as being common in pre-homosexual boys, including low masculine self-regard, isolation, scapegoating, and rejection by male peers and older males, including the father. " (p.237)

[7] Crewdson: ".... no other laboratory has confirmed Hamer's findings."

[8] Horgan: "LeVay's finding has yet to be fully replicated by another researcher. As for Hamer, one study has contradicted his results."

[9] McGuire: "... some people want homosexuality to be biological or genetic because they then believe that because homosexuals are 'born that way' they will somehow be tolerated. Others advocate environmental causes since this justifies their belief that individuals 'chose a gay lifestyle'." (p.141) "Even if we knew absolutely everything about genes and absolutely everything about environment, we still could not predict the final phenotype of any individual." (p.142)

[10] Rice et al. attempted unsuccessfully to replicate the Hamer study.

[11] Bailey: A study of the male siblings of homosexually active males found that "52% (29/56) of monozygotic co-twins, 22% (12/54) of dizogotic co-twins, and 11% (6/57) of adoptive brothers were homosexual... rate of homosexuality among non-twin biological siblings, as reported by probands, 9.2% (13/142). (p.1089)

[12]Parker: Case A: "Their mother, then 39 years old, learnt only a few days before the confinement that she was having twins, as she already had a 7-year-old son was anxious that one of them should be a girl. Sensing her obvious disappointment following the normal delivery of two 6 1/2 pound sons, the labour ward Sister consoled her with the suggestion that the first-born, and one subsequently to become a homosexual, was pretty enough to be a girl. Although they were so alike that they could not be distinguished, the mother seized on this idea and put a bracelet around the first twin to ensure there would be no confusion of identity, and from then on he was treated as if he were a girl." (p.490)

[13] Marmor: "The myth that homosexuality is untreatable still has wide currency among the public at large and among homosexuals themselves. This view is often linked to the assumption that homosexuality is constitutionally or genetically determined. This conviction of untreatibility also serves an ego-defensive purpose for many homosexuals. As the understanding of the adaptive nature of most homosexual behavior has become more widespread, however, there has evolved a greater therapeutic optimism about the possibilities for change, and progressively more hopeful results are being reported... There is little doubt that a genuine shift in preferential sex object choice can and does take place in somewhere between 20 and 50 per cent of patients with homosexual behavior who seek psychotherapy with this end in mind." (p.1519)

[14] Ernulf found that those who believed that homosexuals are "born that way" held significantly more positive attitudes toward homosexuals than subjects who believed that homosexuals "choose to be that way" and/or "learn to be that way."

[15] Piskur: "The major finding of this study was that exposure to a written summary of research supporting biological determinants of homosexual orientation can affect scores assessing attitudes toward homosexuals when measured immediately after the reading." (p.1223)

[16] Green: "The Supreme Court ruled in Bowers v Hardwick that there is no fundamental right under a substantive due process analysis to engage in homosexual behavior. Therefore, the remaining constitutional route to protecting homosexuals against discrimination is the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment. For the highest level of protection there, a class of persons must be declared 'suspect.' To so qualify, the class should demonstrate, inter alia, that the trait for which it is stigmatized is immutable." (p.537)

[17] Apperson: "The importance of the relationship -- or lack of it -- with the father is again emphasized, with the homosexual S[ubject]s showing marked difference from the controls in perceiving the father more as critical, impatient, and rejecting, and less as the socializing agent." (p.206)

[18] Bene: "Far fewer homosexual than married men thought that their fathers had been cheerful, helpful, reliable, kind or understanding, while far more felt that their fathers had no time for them, had not loved them, and had made them feel unhappy." (p.805)

[19] Bieber: "Profound interpersonal disturbance is unremitting in the homosexual father-son relationship. Not one of the fathers (of homosexual sons)... could be regarded as reasonably 'normal' parents." (p.114) "We have come to the conclusion that a constructive, supportive, warmly related father precludes the possibility of a homosexual son; he acts as a neutralizing protective agent should the mother make seductive or close-binding attempts." (p.311)

[20] Fisher: "Fisher analyzed the 58 studies and reported that a large majority supported the notion that homosexual sons perceive their fathers as negative, distant, unfriendly figures." A review of literature on childhood experiences of male homosexuals found "With only a few exceptions, the male homosexual declares that father has been a negative influence in his life. He refers to him with such adjectives as cold, unfriendly punishing, brutal, distant, detached. There is not a single even moderately well controlled study that we have been able to locate in which male homosexuals refer to father positively or affectionately." (p.136)

[21] Pillard: "Alcoholism occurs more frequently in fathers of HS[homosexual] men (14 fathers of HS men versus five fathers of HT[Heterosexual] men.)" (p.54)

[22] Sipova: "It was found that the fathers of homosexuals and transsexuals were more hostile and less dominant than the fathers of the control group and hence less desirable identification models." (p.75)

[23] Bieber: "In about 75 per cent of the cases, the mothers had had an inappropriately close, binding, and intimate bond with their sons. More than half of these mothers were described as seductive. They were possessive, dominating, overprotective, and demasculinizing." (p.524)

[24] Bieber: "By the time the H[homosexual]-son has reached the preadolescent period, he has suffered a diffuse personality disorder. Maternal over-anxiety about health and injury, restriction of activities normative for the son's age and potential, interference with assertive behavior, demasculinizing attitudes, and interference with sexuality -- interpenetrating with paternal rejection, hostility, and lack of support -- produce an excessively fearful child, pathologically dependent upon his mother and beset by feelings of inadequacy, impotence, and self-contempt. He is reluctant to participate in boyhood activities thought to be physically injurious -- usually grossly overestimated. His peer group responds with humiliating name-calling and often with physical attack which timidity tends to invite among children... Thus he is deprived of important empathic interaction which peer groups provide." (p.316)

[25] Snortum studied 46 males separated from military service because of homosexual behavior and concluded: "It appears that the pathological interplay between a close-binding, controlling mothers and a rejecting and detached father is not unique to the subculture of sophisticated, upper-middle-class families who engage psychoanalysts." (p.769)

[26] Fitzgibbons: "The second most common cause of SSAD [same sex attraction disorder] among males is mistrust of women's love... Male children in fatherless homes often feel overly responsible for their mothers. As they enter their adolescence, they may come to view female love as draining and exhausting." (p.89)

[27] Bradley: "Girls with GID ...have difficulty connecting with their mothers, who are perceived as weak and ineffective. We see this perception as arising from the high levels of psychopathology observed in these mothers, especially severe depression and borderline personality disorder." (p.877)

[28] Eisenbud "Broken homes and alcoholic conditions in Lesbian women's early backgrounds as well as inadequate mothering, afford no further chance of warm inclusion. The death of a beloved mother leaves cold isolation. Even when mother is present, the Lesbian girl frequently experiences her withdrawal from her after 18 months." (p.98-99)

[29] Zucker: "...we feel that parental tolerance of cross-gender behavior at the time of its emergence is instrumental in allowing the behavior to develop...What is unique in the situation with children who develop a gender identity disorder is the co- occurrence of a multitude of factors at a sensitive period in the child's development -- that is, most typically in the first few years of life, the period of gender identity formation and consolidation. There must be a sufficient numbers of factors to induce a state of inner insecurity in the child, such that he or she requires a defensive solution to deal with anxiety. This must occur in a context in which the child perceives that the opposite-sex role provides a sense of safety or security."(p.259) "... we were unable to identify in any case reports a clinician who felt that the parents unequivocally encour­aged a masculine identity in their sons." (p.277)

[30] Friedman: "Thirteen of the 17 homosexual subjects (76%) reported chronic, persistent terror of fighting with other boys during the juvenile and early adolescent period. The intensity of this fear approximated a panic reaction. To the best of their recall, these boys never responded to challenge from a male peer with counter- challenge, threat, or attack. The pervasive dread of male-male peer aggression was a powerful organizing force in their minds. Anticipatory anxiety resulted in phobic responses to social activities; the fantasy that fighting might occur led to avoidance of wide variety of social interactions, especially rough-and-tumble activities (defined in our investigation as body-contact sports such as football and soccer). "These subjects reported that painful loss of self-esteem and loneliness resulted from their extreme aversion to juvenile peer aggressive interactions. All but one (12 of 13) were chronically hungry for closeness with other boys. Unable to overcome their dread of potential aggression in order to win respect and acceptance, these boys were labeled "sissies" by peers. These 12 subjects related that they had the lowest possible peer status during juvenile and early adolescent years. Alternately ostracized and scapegoated, they were the targets of continual humiliation. All of these boys denied effeminacy..." (p.432-433) "No pre-homosexual youngster had any degree of experience with fighting or rough-and-tumble during the juvenile years. None engaged in even the modest juvenile sex-typed interactions described by the least aggressive heterosexual youngster." (p.434)

[31] Hadden: "In analytical examination of the pre-school period of life it is usually revealed that the boy who became homosexual never felt accepted by and never felt comfortable in relationships with his age peers. Quite often because of parental interference he was prevented from participation in the play activities with other children and had little opportunity of running, romping, rolling around, tugging, wrestling, and scrambling with his peers from the toddling stage to the kindergarten or school age." (p.78)

[32] Hockenberry: "The conclusion was made that the five item function (playing with boys, preferring boys' games, imagining self as a sport figure, reading adventure and sports stories, considered a "sissy") was the most potent and parsimonious discriminator among adult males for sexual orientation. It was similarly noted that the absence of masculine behaviors and traits appeared to be a more powerful predictor of later homosexual orientation than the traditionally feminine or cross-sexed traits and behaviors." (p.475)

[33] Whitam developed and administered a six item inventory to 206 homosexual and 78 heterosexual male respondents regarding their childhood interests in cross-dressing, playing with dolls, preferences for affiliating with girls and older women, being regarded as a "sissy" by peers, and the nature of one's childhood sex play. Virtually all of the homosexuals (97%) reported possessing one or more of these "childhood indicators," whereas 74% of the heterosexual subjects reported a complete absence of any of the indicators in their childhood. (In Hockenberry, p.476)

[34] Thompson compared 127 male homosexuals with 123 controls: "The seven most discriminating items in order from the highest were: (a) played baseball... with homosexuals concentrating on never or sometimes...;(b) played competitive group games (homosexuals never or sometimes...); (c) child spent time with father (homosexuals, very little...); (d) physical makeup as a child (homosexuals, frail, clumsy; heterosexuals, coordinated or athletic); (e) felt accepted by father (homosexuals, mildly or no...); (f) played with boys before adolescence (homosexuals, sometimes...); and (g) mother insisted on being center of child's attention (homosexuals, often or always...)"(p.123)

[35] Bailey: "Male homosexuals were remembered by their mothers as less masculine and more non-athletic." (p.44)

[36] Fitzgibbons: "Weak masculine identity is easily identified and, in my clinical experience, is a major cause of SSAD in men. Surprisingly, it can be an outgrowth of weak eye-hand coordination which results in an inability to play sports well. This condition is usually accompanied by severe peer rejection .The 'sports wound' will negatively affect the boy's image of himself, his relationship with peers, his gender identity, and his body image." (p.88)

[37] Newman: "Experiences of being ostracized and ridiculed may play a more important role than has been recognized in the total abandonment of the male role at a later time." (p.687)

[38] Beitchman: "Among adolescents, commonly reported sequalae (of child sexual abuse) include sexual dissatisfaction, promiscuity, homosexuality, and an increased risk for re-victimization. (p.537)

[39] Bradley: "In our female adolescents with GID, a history of sexual abuse or fears of sexual aggression has appeared commonly." (p.878)

[40] Engel: "Some lesbian patients [victims of sexual abuse] go through a time of confusion, not being sure whether they are with women out of choice or whether it is just because they are afraid, angry, and repulsed by men due to the sexual abuse." (p.193)

[41] Gundlach reported that 39 of 217 lesbians versus 15 of 231 non-lesbians reported they were objects of rape or attempted rape at age 15 or under. (p.62)

[42] Golwyn: "We conclude that social phobia may be a hidden contributing factor in some instances of homosexual behavior." (p.40)

[43] Fergusson et al found that in a birth cohort sample the gay, lesbian, bisexual subjects has significantly higher rates of: Suicidal Ideation (67.9%/29.0%), Suicide Attempt (32.1%/7.1%), and psychiatric disorders age 14 -21 -- Major depression (71.4%/38.2%), Generalized anxiety disorder (28.5%/12.5%), conduct disorder (32.1%/11.0%), Nicotine dependence (64.3%/26.7%), Other substance abuse/dependence (60.7%/44.3%), Multiple disorders (78.6%/38.2%) than the heterosexual sample. (p.879)

[44] Parris in a study of consecutive admissions found that the rate of homosexuality in the BPD [Borderline Personality Disorder] sample was 16.7%, as compared with 1.7% in the non-BPD comparison group. The homosexual BPD group had a rate of overall Childhood Sexual Abuse rate of 100% as compared to 37.3% for the heterosexual BPD group. "It is interesting that 3 out of 10 homosexual borderline patients also reported father-son incest." (p.59)

[45] Zubenko: "Homosexuality was 10 times more common among the men and six times more common among the women with borderline personality disorder than in the general population or in a depressed control group." (p.748)

[46] Gonsiorek discusses the treatment of homosexuals who are also schizophrenic. (p.12)

[47] Bychowski: "... homosexuals, in whom the ego has remained fixated in the stage of early narcissism, find it impossible to substitute consistent and successful dealings with reality for homosexual acts which they invest heavily with magic. The structure of these individuals is in many respects close to schizophrenia." (p.55)

[48] Kaplan: "In a sense, the homosexual has much in common with the narcissist, who has a love affair with himself. The homosexual, however, is unable to love himself as he is, since he is too dissatisfied with himself; instead he loves his ego-ideal, as represented by the homosexual partner whom he chooses. Thus for this particular type of individual, homosexuality becomes an extension of narcissism." (p.358)

[49] Berger: "A possible aetiological factor that has not been mentioned before in the literature, the abortion of a pregnancy conceived by the male patient that may have led to the patient 'coming out' or declaring homosexuality, is discussed." (p.251)

[50] APA: "Gender Identity Disorder can be distinguished from simple nonconformity to stereotypical sex role behavior by the extent and persuasiveness of cross-gender wishes, interests, and activities." (p. 536)

[51] Phillips: "The 16-item discriminate-function ... yielded correct classification of 94.4% of heterosexual men and 91.8% of the homosexual men. These results indicate that heterosexual and homosexual men are classified with equivalent accuracy on the basis of recalling having had or not having had gender conforming (masculine) experiences in childhood." (p.550)

[52] Harry: "These data suggest that some history of childhood femininity is almost always a precursor of adolescent homosexual behavior." (p.259)

[53] Hadden: "In my experience with male homosexuals, they almost universally recognize that they were maladjusted at the time they started school. Many were recognized by their parents as needing psychiatric assistance much earlier." (p.78)

[54] Rekers: "When we first saw him, the extent of his feminine identification was so profound ... that it suggested irreversible neurological and biochemical determinants. After 26 months follow-up, he looked and acted like any other boy. People who viewed the video taped recordings of him before and after treatment talk of him as 'two different boys.'"

[55] Brown: "In summary, then it would seem that the family pattern involving a combination of a dominating, overly intimate mother plus a detached, hostile or weak father is beyond doubt related to the development of male homosexuality...It is surprising there has not been greater recognition of this relationship among the various disciplines that are concerned with children. A problem that arises in this connection is how to inform and educate teachers and parents relative to the decisive influence of the family in determining the course and outcome of the child's psychosexual development. There would seem no justification for waiting another 25 or 50 years to bring this information to the attention of those who deal with children. And there is no excuse for professional workers in the behavioral sciences to continue avoiding their responsibility to disseminate this knowledge and understanding as widely as possible." (p.232)

[56] Acosta: "...better prospects for intervention in homosexuality lie in its prevention through the early identification and treatment of the potential homosexual child." (p.9)

[57] Green: "This longitudinal study of two groups of boys demonstrates that the association between extensive cross-gender behavior in boyhood and homosexual behavior in adulthood, suggested by previous retrospective reports, can be validated by a prospective study of clinically or family-referred boys with behaviors consistent with the gender identity disorder of childhood. However, not all boys with extensive cross- gender behavior evolved as bisexual or homosexual men. No boys in the comparison group evolved as bisexual or homosexual." (p.340)

[58] Bieber: "The therapeutic results of our study provide reason for an optimistic outlook. Many homosexuals became exclusively heterosexual in psychoanalytic treatment. Although this change may be more easily accomplished by some than by others, in our judgment a heterosexual shift is a possibility for all homosexuals who are strongly motivated to change." (p.319)

[59] Clippinger: "Of 785 patients treated, 307 - or approximately 38% -- were cured. Adding the percentage figures of the two other studies, we can say that at least 40% of the homosexuals were cured, and an additional 10 to 30% of the homosexuals were improved, depending on the particular study for which statistics were available." (p.22)

[60] Fine: "Whether with hypnosis..., psychoanalysis of any variety, educative psychotherapy, behavior therapy, and/or simple educational procedures, a considerable percentage of overt homosexuals became heterosexual... If patients were motivated, whatever procedure is adopted a large percentage will give up their homosexuality... The misinformation that homosexuality is untreatable by psychotherapy does incalculable harm to thousands of men and women... All studies from Schrenk-Notzing on have found positive effects virtually regardless of the kind of treatment used." (p.85-86)

[61] Kaye: "Finally, we have indications for therapeutic optimism in the psychoanalytic treatment of homosexual women. We find, roughly, at least a 50% probability of significant improvement in women with this syndrome who present themselves for treatment and remain in it." (p.634)

[62] MacIntosh queried psychoanalysts who reported that of 824 male patients of 213 analysts - 197 (23.9%) changed to heterosexuality, 703 received significant therapeutic benefit; and of the 391 female patients of 153 analysts -- 79 (20.2%) changed to heterosexuality, 318 received significant therapeutic benefit. (p.1183)

[63] Marmor: "The clinicians represented in this volume present convincing evidence that homosexuality is a potentially reversible condition. There is little doubt that much of the recent success in the treatment of homosexuals stems from the growing recognition among psychoanalysts that homosexuality is a disorder of adaptation." (p. 21)

[64] Nicolosi surveyed 850 individuals and 200 therapists and counselors -- specifically seeking out individuals who claim to have made a degree of change in sexual orientation. Before counseling or therapy, 68% of respondents perceived themselves as exclusively or almost entirely homosexual, with another 22% stating they were more homosexual than heterosexual. After treatment only 13% perceived themselves as exclusively or almost entire homosexuality, while 33% described themselves as either exclusively or almost entirely heterosexual. 99% of respondents said they now believe treatment to change homosexuality can be effective and valuable.

[65] Rogers: "In general, reports on the group treatment of homosexuals are optimistic; in almost all cases the therapists report a favorable outcome of therapy whether the therapeutic goal was one of achieving a change in sexual orientation or whether it was a reduction in concomitant problems." (p.22)

[66] Satinover reviewed literature in treatment and found that in the eight years between 1966 and 1974 alone, the Medline database -- which excludes many psychotherapy journals -- listed over a thousand articles on the treatment of homosexuality. According to Satinover, these reports contradict claims that change is impossible. Indeed, it would be more accurate to say that all the existing evidence suggests strongly that homosexuality is quite changeable. Most psychotherapists will allow that in the treatment of any condition, a 30% rate may be anticipated. (p.169)

[67] Throckmorton: "Narrowly, the question to be addressed is: Do conversion therapy techniques work to change unwanted sexual arousal? I submit that the case against conversion therapy requires opponents to demonstrate that no patients have benefited from such procedures or that any benefits are too costly in some objective way to be pursued even if they work. The available evidence supports the observation of many counselors -- that many individuals with same-gender sexual orientation have been able to change through a variety of counseling approaches." (p.287)

[68] West summarizes the results of studies: behavioral techniques have the best documented success (never less than 30%); psychoanalysis claims a great deal of success (the average rate seemed to be about 25%, but 50% of the bisexuals achieved exclusive heterosexuality.)"Every study ever performed on conversion from homosexual to heterosexual orientation has produced some successes."

[69] Barnhouse: "These facts and statistics about cure are well known and not difficult to verify. In addition, there are many people to have experienced their homosexuality as a burden either for moral or social reasons who have, without the aid of psychotherapy, managed to give up this symptom; of these, a significant number have been able to make the transition to satisfying heterosexuality. Quite apart from published studies by those who have specialized in the treatment of sexual disorders, many psychiatrists and psychologists with a more general type of practice (and I include myself in this group) have been successful in helping homosexual patients to make a complete and permanent transition to heterosexual." (p.109)

[70] Bergler: "In nearly thirty years, I have successfully concluded analyses of one hundred homosexuals... and have seen nearly five hundred cases in consultation. On the basis of the experience thus gathered, I make the positive statement that homosexuality has an excellent prognosis in psychiatric-psychoanalytic treatment of one to two years' duration, with a minimum of three appointments each week -- provided the patient really wishes to change. A considerable number of colleagues have achieved similar success." (p.176)

[71] Bieber: "We have followed some patients for as long as 20 years who have remained exclusively heterosexual. Reversal estimates now range from 30% to an optimistic 50%" (p.416).

[72] Cappon reported that of patients with bisexual problems 90% were cured (i.e., no reversions to homosexual behavior, no consciousness of homosexual desire and fantasy) in males who terminated treatment by common consent. Male homosexual patients: 80% showed marked improvement (i.e., occasional relapses, release of aggression, increasingly dominant heterosexuality)... 50% changed. (p.265-268) Of female patients 30% changed.

[73] Caprio: "Many patients of mine, who were formerly lesbians, have communicated long after treatment was terminated, informing me that they are happily married and are convinced that they will never return to a homosexual way of life." (p.299)

[74] Ellis: "... it is felt that there are some grounds for believing that the majority of homosexuals who are seriously concerned about their condition and willing to work to improve it may, in the course of active psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy, be distinctly helped to achieve a more satisfactory heterosexual orientation." (p.194)

[75] Hadden: "From my experience I have concluded that homosexuals can be treated more effectively by group psychotherapy when they are started in groups made up exclusively of homosexuals. In such groups the rationalization that homosexuality is a pattern of life they wish to follow is destroyed by their fellow homosexuals." (p. 814)

[76] Hadden: "As each patient is brought into the group, we make it clear to him that we do not regard homosexuality as a particular disease, but as a symptom of an overall pattern of maladjustment.... I anticipate that better than one-third of the patients who persist in treatment will experience a reversal of their sexual pattern, but it may be necessary to continue in treatment for two or more years." (p.114)

[77] Hadfield reported curing 8 homosexuals: "By cure I do not mean... that the homosexual is merely able to control his propensity ... Nor .. do I mean that the patient is rendered capable of having sexual relations and bearing children; for ... he might do this by the help of homosexual fantasies. By 'cure' I mean that he loses his propensity to his own sex, has his sexual interests directed towards those of the opposite sex, so that he becomes in all respects a sexually normal person." (p.1323)

[78] Hatterer reported: 49 patients changed (20 married, of these 10 remained married, 2 divorced, 18 achieved heterosexual adjustments); 18 partially recovered, remained single; 76 remained homosexual (28 palliated - 58 unchanged) "A large undisclosed population has melted into heterosexual society, persons who behaved homosexually in late adolescence and early adulthood, and who, on their own, resolved their conflicts and abandoned such behavior to go on to successful marriages or to bisexual patterns of adaptation." (p.14)

[79] Kroneymeyer: "From my 25 years' experience as a clinical psychologist, I firmly believe that homosexuality is a learned response to early painful experiences and that it can be unlearned. For those homosexuals who are unhappy with their life and find effective therapy it is 'curable'" (p.7)

[80] Exodus North America Update publishes a monthly newsletter containing testimonies of men and women who have left homosexuality. PO Box 77652, Seattle WA 98177, see issues from 1990 - 2000.

[81] APA "Fact sheet: Homosexuality and Bisexuality": "... There is no published scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of 'reparative therapy' as a treatment to change one's sexual orientation."

[82] Herek: "As recently as January of 1990, Dr. Bryant Welch, Executive Director for Professional Practice of the American Psychological Association, stated that 'no scientific evidence exists to support the effectiveness of any of the conversion therapies that try to change one's sexual orientation' and that 'research findings suggest that efforts to 'repair' homosexuals are nothing more than social prejudice garbed in psychological accoutrements. (p.152)

[83] Tripp: "From my point of view, there is no indication that fundamental changes in anybody's sex life are ever wrought by therapy, nor would they be particularly desirable anyway. A person's best sexual orientation is the one that helps him get the most out of himself, spontaneously. Killing off his guilt and his childish expectation that conformity is the road to heaven both tend to give him confidence and the energy to make a much smoother social integration... Since homosexuality is an alternate orientation and not a disease, 'cure' is patently impossible. What passes for 'cure' is surface symptom suppression or outright avoidance." (p.48)

[84] Goetze reviewed 17 studies and found a total of 44 persons who were exclusively or predominantly homosexual experienced a full shift of sexual orientation.

[85] Coleman: "... to offer a cure to homosexuals who request a change in their sexual orientation is, in my opinion unethical. There is evidence, as reviewed in this paper, that therapists can help individuals change their behavior for a period of time. The question remains whether it is beneficial for patients to change their behavior to something that is inconsistent or incongruent with their sexual orientation." (p.354)

[86] Herron: "Changing a person's sexual behavior from homosexual to heterosexual might be accomplished by working with a potential already present, but this would not really change the person's preference. While it may appear that psychoanalysis can change a person's sexual orientation, in truth this is a limited accomplishment that happens only occasionally and even then is of questionable duration." (p.179)

[87] Acosta: "Most therapeutic success seems to be with bisexuals rather than exclusive homosexuals. The combined use of psychotherapy and specific behavioral techniques is seen to offer some promise for heterosexual adaptation with certain kinds of patients." (p.9)

[88] Davison: "... even if one were to demonstrate that a particular sexual preference could be modified by a negative learning experience, there remains the question of how relevant these data are to the ethical question of whether one should engage in such behavior changes regimens. The simple truth is that data on efficacy are quite irrelevant. Even if we could effect certain changes, there is still the more important question of whether we should. I believe we should not." (p.96) "Change of orientation therapy programs should be eliminated. Their availability only confirms professional and societal biases against homosexuality, despite seemingly progressive rhetoric about its normality... " (p.97)

[89] Gittings: "The homosexual community looks upon efforts to change homosexuals to heterosexuality, or to mold younger, supposedly malleable homosexuals into heterosexuality... as an assault upon our people comparable in its way to genocide."

[90] Begelman: "The efforts of behavior therapists to reorient homosexuals to heterosexuals by their very existence constitute a significant causal element in reinforcing the social doctrine that homosexuality is bad." (p.180)

[91] Begelman: "My recommendation that behavior therapists consider abandoning the administration of sexual reorientation techniques is based on the following considerations. Administering these programs means reinforcing the social belief system about homosexuality. The meaning of the act of providing reorientation services is yet another element in a causal nexus of oppression." (p.217)

[92] Murphy: "There would be no reorientation techniques where there were no interpretation that homoeroticism is an inferior state, an interpretation that in many ways continues to be medically defined, criminally enforced, socially sanctioned, and religiously justified. And it is in this moral interpretation, more than in the reigning medical theory of the day, that all programs of sexual reorientation have their common origins and justifications." (p.520)

[93] Sleek quotes Linda Garnet, Chair of APA's Board for Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest who stated that reorientation therapies "feed upon society's prejudice towards gays and may exacerbate a patient's problems with poor self-esteem, shame, and guilt."

[94] Smith: "Naturally, all parents wish their children to be happy and to resemble themselves, and if it were possible to prevent homosexual adjustment (not to mention transsexualism) most parents would welcome the intervention. On the other hand, this raises ethical issues along the lines of other 'Final Solutions' to minority problems." (p.67)

[95] Begelman: "The recommendation is not based on any abstract disagreement with the principle that patients have a right to seek aid in reducing their anxiety or upset. But it does take cognizance of the fact that the homosexual person who seeks treatment does so most of the time because he has been forced into adopting a conventional and prejudicial view of his behavior. On what ethical basis, it may be asked, are we obliged to desert the patient in favor of allegiance to an abstract set of considerations." (p.217)

[96] Silverstein: "To suggest that a person comes voluntarily to change his sexual orientation is to ignore the powerful environmental stress, oppression if you will, that has been telling him for years that he should change... What brings them into counseling is guilt, shame, and the loneliness that comes from their secret. If you really wish to help them freely choose, I suggest you first desensitize them to their guilt. Allow them to dissolve the shame about their desires and actions and to feel comfortable with their sexuality. After that, let them choose, but not before." (p.4)

[97] Barrett: "Assisting gays and lesbians to step away from external religious authority may challenge the counselor's own acceptance of religious teachings." (p.8)

[98] Nelson, a professor of Christian ethics defends homosexual infidelity: "... it is insensitive and unfair to judge gay men and lesbians by a heterosexual ideal of the monogamous relationship... Some such couples (as is true of some heterosexual couples) have explored relationships that admit the possibility of sexual intimacy with secondary partners." (p.173)

[99] Mirkin: "This article will argue that, like homosexuality, the concept of child molestation is a culture and class specific modern creation. Though Americans consider intergenerational sex to be evil, it has been permissible or obligatory in many cultures and periods of history. Sex with male youths is especially widespread." (p.4)

[100] Smith: "Pedophilia may be a cultural label rather than anything inherently medical or psychiatric; anthropological findings support this view." (p.68)

[101] Davison: "Bieber et al. found that what they called a 'close-binding intimate mother' was present much more often in the life history of the analytic homosexual patients than among the heterosexual controls. But what is wrong with such a mother unless you happen to find her in the background of people whose current behavior you judge beforehand to be pathological? Moreover, even when an emotional disorder is identified in a homosexual, it could be argued that the problem is due to the extreme duress under which the person has to live in a society that asserts that homosexuals are 'queer' and that actively oppresses them." (p.92)

[102] Menvielle in letter criticizing an article on GID by Bradley and Zucker (1997): "The ethical implications of whether childhood GID is a psychiatric disorder versus a manifestation of normal homosexual orientation are vital because labeling pre- homosexual children as disordered would be incorrect." (p.243) Bradley and Zucker responded: "Dr. Menvielle is naive in his assumption that these children would be happy if they were simply allowed to 'grow up' pursing their cross-gender behavior and interests, including the desire to change sex. They are unhappy children who are using these behaviors defensively to deal with their distress." (p.244)

[103] Fitzgibbons: "Experience has taught me that healing is a difficult process, but through the mutual efforts of the therapist and the patient, serious emotional wounds can be healed over a period of time." (p.96)

[104] Doll: 42% of a sample of 1,001 homosexual men reported childhood experiences that meet the criteria for sexual abuse.

[105] Stephan: "... homosexuals reported experiencing their first orgasm at a younger age than the heterosexuals. 24% of homosexuals first orgasms occurred during homosexual contacts versus 2% of heterosexuals." (p.511)

[106] Bell: Homosexuals average age of first homosexual encounter 9.7 years. Heterosexuals' first sexual encounter 11.6 years.

[107] Johnson: "The 40 adolescent males reporting sexual victimization ranged in age from 15 to 21 years at the time of their initial clinic visit... No adolescent under 15 years of age reported having been sexually assaulted, and only six of the 40 were under age 17...Only six of the 40 patients reported having revealed the assault to anyone prior to the interview... All six patients identified themselves as currently homosexual." (p.374) "Even though nearly half of our adolescent male clinic population is under 15 years of age, all the adolescents who admitted sexual molestation were over 15 years of age. Since all the reported molestations occurred during the preadolescent years, we can only speculate that our young adolescent males did not report earlier sexual abuse. " Of the 40 reporting sexual abuse 47.5% self-identified as homosexual. (p.375)

[108] Saghir and Robins found that while less than 6% of heterosexual men under 19 and 0% of those over 19 masturbated 4 or more times per week, 46% of homosexual men under 19, 31% of those 20 to 29, and 26% of those over 30 did so. (p.49 - 50)

[109] Beitchman: "...sexually abused school-age children of both sexes, like their sexually abused pre-school counterparts, appeared more likely to manifest inappropriate sexual behaviors (e.g., excessive masturbation, sexual preoccupation, and sexual aggression) than did both normal and clinical controls." (p.544)

[110] Goode: Never masturbated - 28% Homosexually inexperienced women versus 0% homosexually experienced. Masturbated 6 or more times in past month - 13% of HIW v. 50% of HEW.

[111] Saghir and Robins' study found 40% of homosexual men paid or received money for sex, versus 17% of controls (not homosexual) who paid for sex, none received. (p.81)

[112] Fifield: "... an alarming number of gay men and women (31.96%) are trapped in an alcohol-centered lifestyle."

[113] Saghir and Robins found that 30% of the homosexuals in their sample reported excessive drinking or alcohol dependence versus 20% of the heterosexuals. (p.119)

[114] Beitchman: "A review of studies reporting symptomology among sexually abused adolescents revealed evidence for the presence of depression, low self-esteem, and suicidal ideation."(p.544)

[115] Zucker: "...In general we concur with those (e.g. Green 1972; Newman 1976; Stoller, 1978) who believe that the earlier treatment begins, the better." (p.281) "It has been our experience that a sizable number of children and their families can achieve a great deal of change. In these cases, the gender identity disorder resolves fully, and nothing in the children's behavior or fantasy suggest that gender identity issues remain problematic.... All things considered, however, we take the position that in such cases a clinicians should be optimistic, not nihilistic, about the possibility of helping the children to become more secure in their gender identity."(p.282)

[116] Newman: "Feminine boys, unlike men with postpubertal gender identity disorders seem remarkably responsive to treatment." (p.684)

[117] Newman: "Teasing and social rejection by male peers decreases and is replaced by acceptance. During the initial 12 - 24 months of treatment, these patients begin to enjoy being accepted as boys, and their acceptance is a strong, continuing reinforcer." (p.684)

[118] Bradley: "Our experience is that such suffering diminishes radically, and self esteem improves when the parents are able to value the child and to support and to encourage same-sex behavior." (p.245)

[119] Bates: "It seems likely that it is the combination of effeminacy, fearfulness, social aversiveness; and immaturity that together constitute sufficient conditions for parents, schools, and others to seek clinical intervention for effeminacy." (p.14)

[120] Newman: "Mothers generally fear losing the son's companionship as he becomes more masculine and therefore reluctant to begin a treatment program." (p.684)

[121] Garofalo: "Gay and bisexual teenagers may take more risks, and engage in risky behavior earlier in life, than teenagers who describe themselves as heterosexual. GLB [gay, lesbian, bisexual] teenagers were more likely to consider or attempt suicide, abuse alcohol or drugs, participate in risky sexual activity, or be victimized, and to initiate these behaviors earlier."

[122] Osmond et al. conducted a household survey of unmarried men 18 through 29 years of age and found that of 328 homosexual men, 20.1% tested positive for HIV.

[123] Stall: "... the prevalence of use of particular drugs within this sample of an urban gay community is quite high and significant differences exist between the number of drugs used by the homosexual and heterosexual respondents. The finding that a sizable proportion of gay men use many different types of drugs raises the possibility that concurrent drug use is relatively common among gay men." (p.71)

[124] Signorile, quoting Steve Troy: "It's the age of AIDS and I think people's attitude is, 'I don't know how long I'm going to live...' The majority of people who go to the circuit parties are HIV-positive, I really think so. Their attitude is, 'I'm going to live for the moment.' The circuit parties are the one outlet we have for total escapism. The unfortunate part of it is that when we do the drugs, we become much less inhibited. Things that we might normally not do when we have our wits about us, we actually do... And, to be honest, I can't say I'm... I can't say that I haven't done that myself. When people are on drugs, the chances of unsafe sex are greater -- like ten times higher." (p. 116)

[125] Rekers: "With major research grants from the National Institute of Mental Health, I have experimentally demonstrated an effective treatment for "gender identity disorder of childhood" which appears to hold potential for preventing homosexual orientation in males, if applied extensively in the population."

[126] Mulry: "..men who never drank prior to sex were very unlikely to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse, whereas 90% of men who had at least one occasion of unprotected anal intercourse also drank at least some of the time prior to sexual intercourse." The report found: "a virtual absence of individuals who did not drink but did engage unprotected anal intercourse." (p.181)

[127] Bell: 62% of 575 homosexual men in a study published in 1978 had contracted a sexually transmitted disease from homosexual contacts.

[128] Rotello: "Who wants to encourage their kids to engage in a life that ex­poses them to a 50 percent chance of HIV infection? Who even wants to be neutral about such a possibility? If the rationale behind social tolerance of homosexuality is that it allows gay kids an equal shot at the pursuit of happiness, that rationale is hopelessly undermined by an endless epidemic that negates happiness." (p.286)

[129] Stall: "Even using cross-sectional designs, the efficacy of health educa­tion interventions in reducing sexual risk for HIV infection has not been consistently demonstrated... More education, over long period time, cannot be assumed to be effective in inducing behavior changes among chronically high-risk men." (p.883)

[130] Calabrese, Harris, and Easley studying a sample of gay men living outside of the large coastal gay communities, found that neither attendance at a safe sex lecture, reading a safe sex brochure, receiving advice from a physician about AIDS, testing for HIV antibodies, nor counseling at an alternative test site was associated with participation in safe sex.

[131] Hoover: "The overall probability of seroconversion [from HIV - to HIV+ ] prior to age 55 years is about 50%, with seroconversion still continuing at and after age 55. Given that this cohort consists of volunteers receiving extensive anti-HIV-1 transmission edu­cation, the future serocon­version rates of the general homosexual population may be even higher than those observed here." (p.1190)


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